who is kenzo tange

Kenzō Tange (4 September 1913 – 22 March 2005) was a Japanese architect, and winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture. He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism, and designed major buildings on five continents. His career spanned the entire second half of the twentieth century, producing numerous distinctive buildings in Tokyo, other Japanese cities and cities around the world, as well as ambitious physical plans for Tokyo and its environs. Tange was also an influential patron of the Metabolist movement. He said: “It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning of the sixties that I began to think about what I was later to call structuralism”, (cited in Plan 2/1982, Amsterdam), a reference to the architectural movement known as Dutch Structuralism.

Influenced from an early age by the Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier, Tange gained international recognition in 1949 when he won the competition for the design of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. He was a member of CIAM (Congres Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne) in the 1950s. He did not join the group of younger CIAM architects known as Team X, though his 1960 Tokyo Bay plan was influential for Team 10 in the 1960s, as well as the group that became Metabolism.

His university studies on urbanism put him in an ideal position to handle redevelopment projects after the Second World War. His ideas were explored in designs for Tokyo and Skopje. Tange’s work influenced a generation of architects across the world.

Early life

Born on 4 September 1913 in Sakai, Japan, Tange spent his early life in the Chinese cities of Hankow and Shanghai; he and his family returned to Japan after learning of the death of one of his uncles. In contrast to the green lawns and red bricks in their Shanghai abode, the Tange family took up residence in a thatched roof farmhouse in Imabari on the island of Shikoku.

After finishing middle school, Tange moved to Hiroshima in 1930 to attend high school. It was here that he first encountered the works of Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier. His discovery of the drawings of the Palace of the Soviets in a foreign art journal convinced him to become an architect. Although he graduated from high school, Tange’s poor results in mathematics and physics meant that he had to pass entrance exams to qualify for admission to the prestigious universities. He spent two years doing so and during that time, he read extensively about western philosophy. Tange also enrolled in the film division at Nihon University’s art department to dodge Japan’s drafting of young men to its military and seldom attended classes.

In 1935 Tange began the tertiary studies he desired at University of Tokyo’s architecture department. He studied under Hideto Kishida and Shozo Uchida. Although Tange was fascinated by the photographs of Katsura villa that sat on Kishida’s desk, his work was inspired by Le Corbusier. His graduation project was a seventeen-hectare (42-acre) development set in Tokyo’s Hibiya Park.

Early career

After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa. During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, and toured Japanese-occupied Jehol on his return. When the Second World War started, he left Maekawa to rejoin the University of Tokyo as a postgraduate student. He developed an interest in urban design, and referencing only the resources available in the university library, he embarked on a study of Greek and Roman marketplaces. In 1942, Tange entered a competition for the design of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall. He was awarded first prize for a design that would have been situated at the base of Mount Fuji; the hall he conceived was a fusion of Shinto shrine architecture and the plaza on Capitoline Hill in Rome. The design was not realised.

In 1946, Tange became an assistant professor at the university and opened Tange Laboratory. In 1963, he was promoted to professor of the Department of Urban Engineering. His students included Sachio Otani, Kisho Kurokawa, Arata Isozaki, Hajime Yatsuka and Fumihiko Maki.


Peace Center in Hiroshima

Ise Shrine

Kagawa Prefectural Government Hall

Tange’s own home

Town Hall, Kurashiki

Tokyo Olympic arenas

Supreme Court Building of Pakistan

Osaka Exposition 1970

kitchen interior design

The world of effective kitchen design is a maze of design ideas, guides and tips – and a seemingly endless stream of expert advice. Where do you begin? To navigate this culinary landscape, we’ve compiled a transformative starting point help guide you. From determining your needs to installing your work surfaces, our guide below will help you on your way to designing a dream kitchen that’s every bit as beautiful as it is practical.

Full Renovation or Modest Update?

First things first. Before you start planning your brand new kitchen on Pinterest, you first need to decide what your needs are. Do you want to simply give your kitchen a facelift, or start completely fresh? Budget, of course, will be a big determining factor. But you should also decide which elements (if any) you like in your kitchen – and would like to keep. If your kitchen layout works for example, why change it? It’s best to focus on areas in need of attention – replacing those rickety cabinets or updating the worktop can completely transform your space.

Also consider your long-term plans. Updating a kitchen if you’re planning on moving might not add as much value as you think. Many new buyers want to add their own style to their kitchens, and might not like your red-tile kitchen backsplash idea as much as you do.

The Full Kitchen Renovation

If you do want an entirely new kitchen, there are many things to consider. To help you determine your needs, ask yourself these questions:

  1. How can you keep the distance between your main work stations as short as possible? Most efficient kitchen layouts harness the power of the triangle.
  2. Where do you need the most worktop space? Next to the stove and oven, or closer to your serving area?
  3. What are your storage needs? Take a look at how much you need now and plan accordingly. Small kitchens require more thought and clever ideas.
  4. Are you a dinner party person? Do you have kids? Consider whether you need space for a table or bar for someone to sit and talk to you while cooking.
  5. Where do you want to store the appliances and utensils that you use most?
  6. Are you a gadget person? Do you want your tools stored away or out for quick use?
  7. What appliances are non-negotiables? Do you require a double-door fridge or gas stove? These decisions will affect your layout.

Giving some thought about how you use your current kitchen will help you plan your new one. It’s the safest way to ensure that your daily needs aren’t overlooked.

Now you’ll want to consider the constraints of your space. Where are the doors? Where are the windows? What about the electrical outlets? These considerations will make a big difference to your kitchen layout. How to design your kitchen layout? Often, your space will determine the kitchen layout for you – but make sure to familiarise yourself the most popular ones before making any decisions.

Postmodern architecture

Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the international style advocated by Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock. The movement was introduced by the architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown and architectural theorist Robert Venturi in their book Learning from Las Vegas. The style flourished from the 1980s through the 1990s, particularly in the work of Scott Brown & Venturi, Philip Johnson, Charles Moore and Michael Graves. In the late 1990s, it divided into a multitude of new tendencies, including high-tech architecture, neo-futurism and deconstructivism.


Postmodern architecture emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the perceived shortcomings of modern architecture, particularly its rigid doctrines, its uniformity, its lack of ornament, and its habit of ignoring the history and culture of the cities where it appeared. In 1966, Venturi formalized the movement in his book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture.

In place of the functional doctrines of modernism, Venturi proposed giving primary emphasis to the façade, incorporating historical elements, a subtle use of unusual materials and historical allusions, and the use of fragmentation and modulations to make the building interesting. Accomplished architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown, who was Venturi’s wife, and Venturi wrote Learning from Las Vegas (1972), co-authored with Steven Izenour, in which they further developed their joint argument against modernism. They urged architects to take into consideration and to celebrate the existing architecture in a place, rather than to try to impose a visionary utopia from their own fantasies. This was in line with Scott Brown’s belief that buildings should be built for people, and that architecture should listen to them. Scott Brown and Venturi argued that ornamental and decorative elements “accommodate existing needs for variety and communication”. The book was instrumental in opening readers’ eyes to new ways of thinking about buildings, as it drew from the entire history of architecture—both high-style and vernacular, both historic and modern—and In response to Mies van der Rohe’s famous maxim “Less is more”, Venturi responded, to “Less is a bore.” Venturi cited the examples of his wife’s and his own buildings, Guild House, in Philadelphia, as examples of a new style that welcomed variety and historical references, without returning to academic revival of old styles.

In Italy at about the same time, a similar revolt against strict modernism was being launched by the architect Aldo Rossi, who criticized the rebuilding of Italian cities and buildings destroyed during the war in the modernist style, which had had no relation to the architectural history, original street plans, or culture of the cities. Rossi insisted that cities be rebuilt in ways that preserved their historical fabric and local traditions. Similar ideas were and projects were put forward at the Venice Biennale in 1980. The call for a post-modern style was joined by Christian de Portzamparc in France and Ricardo Bofill in Spain, and in Japan by Arata Isozaki.

bionic architecture

Bionic architecture is a contemporary movement that studies the physiological, behavioural, and structural adaptions of biological organisms as a source of inspiration for designing and constructing expressive buildings. These structures are designed to be self-sufficient, being able to structurally modify themselves in response to the fluctuating internal and external forces such as changes in weather and temperature.

Although this style of architecture has existed since the early 18th century period, the movement only began to mature in the early 21st century, following society’s growing concerns over climate change and global warming. These influences led to bionic architecture being used to draw society away from its anthropocentric environment, by creating landscapes that allow for the harmonious relationship between nature and society. This is achieved through having an in-depth understanding of the complex interactions between form, material, and structure in order to ensure that the building’s design supports a more sustainable environment. As a result, architects will rely upon the use of high-tech, artificial materials and techniques in order to conserve energy and materials, lower the consumption of construction and increase the practicality and reliability of their building structures

History and theoretical framework

The word ‘bionic architecture’ is derived from the Greek word ‘bios’ (life) as well as the English word ‘technics’ (to study). The term was originally used to describe the scientific trend of ‘transferring technologies into life-forms’. The term ‘bionic’ was first used in 1958 by U.S army colonel, Jack E. Steele and Soviet scientist, Otto Schmitt during an astronomer project that focused on research surrounding the field of robotics. In their project, both researchers initially recognised the concept of bionics as ‘the science of systems based on living creatures’. The idea was then expanded upon in 1997 by Janine Benyus, who coined the term ‘bio mimicry’ which referred to ‘the conscious emulation of nature’s genius’.

In 1974, Victor Glushkov published his book The Encyclopedia of Cybernetics, in which the study of bionics was applied to architectural thinking, and claimed that: In recent years, another new scientific direction has emerged in which bionics collaborates with architecture and building technics, namely architectural bionics. Using models of nature as samples, such as plant stems, living leaf nerve, eggshells, engineers create durable and beautiful architectural structures: houses, bridges, movie theatres, etc.” Later, J.S Lebedev published his book, Architecture and Bionic in 1983 and focused on the classical theory of architecture. It explored the possibility of studying the behaviours of different biological life forms and integrating these observations into building and design. He also theorised that bionic architecture would solve many problems associated with design and construction because it would allow for the ‘perfect protection’ through mimicking the same survival mechanisms used by organisms. By the late 1980s, architectural bionics finally emerged as a new branch of architectural science and practice. This then influenced the creation of the Central Research and Experimental Design Laboratory of Architectural Bionics, which became the main research centre for the field of bionic architecture in the USSR and a number of socialist countries.


The built environment contributes to a majority of waste, material production, energy use and fossil fuel emissions. Thus, there is a responsibility to develop a more efficient and ecologically friendly construction design that still allows for daily activities in society to take place. This is achieved through the use of renewable energy sources such as solar power, wind energy, hydro power, and natural sources such as wood, soil and minerals.

In her book, Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature (1997), Janine Benyus formulated a set of questions that can be used to establish the level of bio mimicry within an architectural design. In order to ensure that an architectural design follows the principles of bionics, the answer must be ‘yes’ to the following questions:

  • Does its precedent relate to nature?
  • Is it solar-powered?
  • Is it self-sufficient?
  • Does it fit form to function?
  • Is it sustainable?
  • Is it beautiful?

harmony in architecture

We have come to our last post on the principles of interior design; harmony and unity. Our two series of blog entries on the elements and principles of design introduce you to the fundamental guiding forces that may be incorporated into the design of your commercial interior. If you missed our previous series on the elements of design (line, colour, texture & pattern, light, and scale & proportion), or our first three principle of design posts (balance, rhythm and emphasis) you can read back to fill yourself in.


Harmony can be described as sameness, the belonging of one thing with another. The repetition of design elements like colour, texture, shape, and form is one of the easiest ways to achieve harmony to create a composition.

Principles of Interior Design: Harmony and Unity from Hatch Interior Design


Unity is when the elements in a space combine to make a balanced, harmonious complete whole. The space feels right and everything works together. The result is a pleasing feeling, that everything is right with the space.

You can see how these two principles of design go hand-in-hand. Harmony and unity are two words that designers often use to describe the feeling of a space. We will also use these terms in relation to your project and the finishes, fixtures and furniture we are proposing. They can provide a sense of calmness, or at least play a role in limiting chaos in our workplaces, and can also add to the comfort level of a room; especially when balance is also considered and effectively realized.

If you read last week’s post on variety you may be saying to yourself, “Hey, didn’t they just tell us that the world becomes a boring place when everything is all matchy-matchy? Isn’t variety the spice of life?”. To that we say, “Yes!”. As interior designers we tend to want harmony and unity with pops of variety to add interest and liven up a potentially static, dull space. Furthermore, all of the elements and principles of design should be considered and used where appropriate in your project. They are the tools that we, designers, keep in our bag of tricks to imagine and execute interiors that are as unique as you are.

Principles of Interior Design: Harmony and Unity from Hatch Interior Design

We hope you have enjoyed our glimpse into the elements and principles of interior design. The thoughtful, creative use of these age old guidelines are what give places of work and play character and identity. A great interior designer will know how to incorporate some or all of these to enforce your message and strengthen your brand.

what is contemporary architecture?

Have you followed the new trends that have taken contemporary architecture by storm? Contemporary architects produce some of today’s most famous building styles. That includes single-family homes and downtown office buildings that are incorporating contemporary styles.

Most of these buildings still reflect classic architecture features. They incorporate these and give them a new modern turn. It is challenging to describe contemporary architecture with conclusive features. Even given this fact, we can attempt to describe buildings that fit this classification.

Contemporary architecture is widespread across the world. It is not only common in Europe and the United States. With time, contemporary design will become a thoroughly global affair. This is the opposite of modern architecture, which was more restricted to Europe and the United States. Now, you can also find this type of famous building worldwide. They are in countries such as China, Latin America, Australia, and Canada, among others.

What is Contemporary Architecture?

Contemporary architecture is the movement where modern styles blend, sharing various features. And these styles rely on fewer classicized building ideas. The term ‘contemporary’ may have been misplaced. This is because it can still describe buildings that are almost eight decades old. Your home or office may be contemporarily designed. It means you reside in one of the pioneers of new building styles. Because there are many styles, it is difficult to come up with a formal definition to describe the movement.

Traditional architectural styles play a massive role in beautifying corporate offices. They also bring functionality to the corporate environment. For this reason, most architects still pay tribute to classicized features. They can do this in as a sign of loyalty to architectural legacy as well as for form and function. The style differentiates itself from the modern architecture of the late twentieth century. This is due to adding eco-friendly features and introducing all manners of creativity. Moreover, it involves the use of state-of-the-art technology and materials. Today, it is easy to simulate computer-aided designs to create buildings. With modern computer software, architects can design with high-level precision and speed.

Features of Contemporary Architecture: The Expressiveness of Form and Design

Classicized ideas thrived on specific design elements. The have flourishes that are predictable and distinguishable while contemporary architecture is more flexible. Contemporary architects thrive on sophisticated and innovative ideas. They deviate from traditions and norms. To achieve this, they need contemporary materials to create these ideas. You will not only appreciate the innovative and creative designs in these buildings. You will also understand the aesthetic feeling through the unique design of structures.

Moreover, contemporary architecture uses a vast range of building materials. These include concrete, glass, wood, and aluminum screens. These materials add contrast and homogeneity. For instance, you will notice they have oversized plate glass windows. These allow plenty of natural light and create large open spaces. They engender a sense of airiness, hence minimizing air conditioning costs. Moreover, the building frames follow symmetry and they often have innovative shapes. To know that some of these materials are eco-friendly is a huge bonus for this style.

Reinforced Concrete Advances

In the past, many considered the use of concrete as brutal. However, modern architecture realized the value of reinforced concrete. With this material, architects can create contemporary designs. Also, you can mold reinforced concrete into almost any shape imaginable. With it, you can create visually-appealing buildings while being budget-friendly. Once you reinforce it with materials like steel, it can be erected in ways hard to find in other buildings. You can texturize it with recyclable materials to add sophistication to it. Recycled glass is one such material. Omitting the use of concrete is next to impossible.

Aside from materials, this form of art has made itself distinct in other ways. Also, contemporary architecture takes advantage of curved lines and rounded spaces. These create a visually appealing structure. It frequently uses these instead of straight lines. This explains why clean lines are catchphrases of this form. Unambiguous elements of minimalism are often linked to modern architecture. Contemporary designs also imitate minimalist movements. This means that we still use classicized models in works of art. They are in both modern and contemporary structures.

The Sense of Sustainability

The present is an era where global warming is a real issue. It is now essential to take specific measures to ensure nature is not compromised. For this reason, modern architects design buildings that are energy efficient. This is in part thanks to recycled materials for the construction process. This needs to include the use of solar panels for roofing purposes. Moreover, the widespread use of reinforced concrete creates not only innovative ideas. It also enhances aesthetic appeal to most buildings. These architects hope to achieve this idea. They’d want to do this to ensure that the whole project is economical. They also want to focus on sustaining the end user’s needs.

Classicized Borrowed Ideas

Modern building techniques borrow ideas from classicized styles. Without those, it would not have advanced as an art as far as it has. Moreover, most elements rely on ideas from the early to the mid-20th century. With clean lines and neatness, contemporary architecture demonstrates a free-flowing form of creativity. Most countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia, among others, have adopted this form. It portrays a lot of curvilinear styles to ease movement. It is no wonder that limestone, glass, and titanium bring out essential elements. These are elements such as natural light, eco-friendly materials, and creative styles.

Architects dealing in contemporary architecture use computer-aided software. It makes it easier to create sophisticated curves and shapes of most buildings. Take a look at the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain built back in 1997. Frank Gehry did a fantastic job thanks to computer-aided design systems. He is a firm believer of open tracks of landscapes combining natural features to break from the norm.

Flat and Overhanging Roofs

The old form of roofing was also limited to pitched triangular designs at the top. It is most associated with American buildings. But the new trend has invited the idea of flat overhanging roofs. This creates more shade. It does this while protecting your building from unnecessary elements. These roofs also project architecture into the outdoors, providing cohesiveness. You will have more reasons to enjoy outdoor spaces. This is thanks to the overhang that presents an awning experience.

Nature-Compliant Designs

Contemporary architecture is also in harmony with nature and structure. Classic designs positioned the windows in the center of walls and used them to view outside. In contrast, contemporary designs use large panels of glass to allow in natural light. Moreover, passive solar heating generated comfort and openness even during winter. It is hard to start imagining the impact of clerestory windows and skylights. These elements are higher than head level. They offer light from the outside world.

Eco-housing forms one of the most critical elements of environment-focused contemporary architecture. When architects use natural materials and building styles, they look to nature for inspiration. Also, they ensure it will not have a negative impact on living creatures. Better still, the designs complement and harmonize the natural environment. They create seamless accountability. This explains why most of the buildings are created in such a way that consciously makes them part of the environment.

Contemporary Architecture Summed Up

The exit of classicized styles of building and construction also matters. Contemporary architecture has taken its place. There’s a new shift of contemporary designs. It is almost impossible to give a precise definition of what it involves. This work of art relies on stark, clean lines. Also, the utility factor of modern architecture presents along with personalized design structures. That said, specific procedures, design values, and even materials define it. These factors can identify and describe the work.

Contemporary architecture relies on eco-friendly features. It embraces all types of innovations. These bring new meaning to modern building and construction. Moreover, it uses the latest technology and recyclable materials. It creates buildings that are high-tech and durable. And they are taller than most of their predecessors. If the trend continues, people will drive to live and work in contemporary architecture structures that respect the law of nature.

How to Create a Modern House Facade

Are you after a modern house facade to lift the presence of your home on your street? Or perhaps you’d like the outside of your home to finally match the inside by changing its tired old facade into something modern?

Changing the facade of a house can do wonders for its overall feel – it can even boost its value when it comes time to sell. Take a look at our favourite contemporary house facades (that don’t require you to take out a second mortgage!) and find some inspiration for your next big project.

What is a modern house facade?

Modern house façades tend to incorporate particular materials, colours and shapes into their designs in order to bring contemporary styling to the front of your home. Every era of architecture has its tell-tale exterior details, such as the inclusion of dramatic columns in Regency-era façades or the heavy English influence of Federation Queen Anne homes.

Contemporary house facades are no different. Simple geometric shapes, rendered cement, clean lines and minimal fuss in décor tend to define modern facades – something we have taken into account when designing our range of beautiful dwellings here at Clarendon Homes.

Single-Storey Modern House Facades

If you’re looking to create a modern house facade, it’s worth keeping in mind key factors such as the architectural style of your home, its cladding (is it brick, weatherboard, or a composite material?) and colours. With these in mind, you can springboard your creative ideas.

why hiring an interior designer is important?

Toying with the idea of hiring an interior designer for your new home, office, or latest renovation? Let us help you make a wise decision.

Hiring an interior designer in India, has so far been a luxury, owing to the expenses involved. But as the times are changing, an expert who can help you design the home of your dreams is more relevant than ever. If you are wondering the worth of getting an interior designer on board for your project — read on.

Reasons Why you Need an Interior Designer #1: A space that’s YOU
Reasons you need an interior designer_kitchen

As popular belief goes, interior designers design your home according to their taste. However, nothing can be further from the truth. An interior designer works with you, understands your taste and preferences, and only then designs your space. Taking your ideas for your space as the starting point, refining them and adding some fresh ones on the same lines will give you a space that is an extension of your personality itself.

Reasons Why you Need an Interior Designer #2: To design functional spaces
Reasons you need an interior designer_living room

Interior designers thoroughly understand that design is not just about aesthetics. Good design is the perfect balance between functionality and beauty. Interior designers truly get to know you, study your lifestyle, and take into account the need and comfort of use for a given space. So, get an interior designer to have yourself the most efficient, workable and comfortable version of your home.

Reasons Why you Need an Interior Designer #3: To create real miracles
Reasons you need an interior designer_kids room

If you have a place which is too tiny for your liking, or a large place that always ends up looking empty — let an interior designer work their magic and miraculously transform your space through design. As an expert, they know how to visually alter even the most challenging of spaces; a feat often impossible to achieve by homeowners themselves.

Reasons Why you Need an Interior Designer #4: Because they are the experts
Reasons you need an interior designer_bedroom

If you would hire an expert to do everything from your nails to your taxes, then why not interiors? It is not everyday that one works on designing a home — done right, it can be a source of immense satisfaction. From knowing home design and trends for every space, inside out, to getting you access to exclusive collections —interior designers can do it all. So, call an expert who can do justice to the money you spend on your home design.

Reasons Why you Need an Interior Designer #5: It can save you time and money
Reasons you need an interior designer_dining

Saving money when you hire an interior designer may sound counter-intuitive but if you really think about it, you’d see the logic. An interior designer can save you from committing expensive mistakes like choosing the wrong paint colour or coffee table — which looked beautiful in-store but not so much when introduced in your home. In addition, the designer very well knows the order in which he/she should carry out all the work, saving you a tonne of time that you’d otherwise spend in figuring it all out. It is a wise idea, to introduce your designer to your home early on; to save any revisions later connect them to your contractor when the home is still getting built.

Reasons Why you Need an Interior Designer #6: Increases the value of your real estate
Reasons you need an interior designer_kitchens

If you have ever tried to find a furnished or semi-furnished home on rent, you would know that location is not the only factor that surges its price. How beautifully a home is designed increases its monetary value by several points. Hence, anyone building a home to give out on rent, can benefit greatly from consulting an interior designer.

Reasons Why you Need an Interior Designer #7: It is now more accessible
Reasons you need an interior designer_living

Believe it or not, getting an interior designer to design your home is not an expensive affair. With increasing demand, the market it moving away from its monopoly model. You can find the right interior designer for you at every budget. And if you feel like paying nothing for your interior designer, and still getting world-class service, get in touch with Livspace. Here you can experience our one-of-a-kind free design service.

ventilation in architecture

Ventilation is the intentional introduction of outdoor air into a space. Ventilation is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used to control indoor temperature, humidity, and air motion to benefit thermal comfort, satisfaction with other aspects of indoor environment, or other objectives.

The intentional introduction of outdoor air is usually categorized as either mechanical ventilation, natural ventilation,or mixed-mode ventilation (hybrid ventilation).

  • Mechanical ventilation is the intentional fan driven flow of outdoor air into a building. Mechanical ventilation systems may include supply fans (which push outdoor air into a building), exhaust fans (which draw air out of building and thereby cause equal ventilation flow into a building), or a combination of both. Mechanical ventilation is often provided by equipment that is also used to heat and cool a space.
  • Natural ventilation is the intentional passive flow of outdoor air into a building through planned openings (such as louvers, doors, and windows). Natural ventilation does not require mechanical systems to move outdoor air. Instead, it relies entirely on passive physical phenomena, such as wind pressure, or the stack effect. Natural ventilation openings may be fixed, or adjustable. Adjustable openings may be controlled automatically (automated), controlled by occupants (operable), or a combination of both.
  • Mixed-mode ventilation systems use both mechanical and natural processes. The mechanical and natural components may be used at the same time, or at different times of day, or in different seasons of the year. Since natural ventilation flow depends on environmental conditions, it may not always provide an appropriate amount of ventilation. In this case, mechanical systems may be used to supplement or regulate the naturally driven flow.

Ventilation is typically described as separate from infiltration.

  • Infiltration is the circumstantial flow of air from outdoors to indoors through leaks (unplanned openings) in a building envelope. When a building design relies on infiltration to maintain indoor air quality, this flow has been referred to as adventitious ventilation.

The design of buildings that promote occupant health and well being requires clear understanding of the ways that ventilation airflow interacts with, dilutes, displaces or introduces pollutants within the occupied space. Although ventilation is an integral component to maintaining good indoor air quality, it may not be satisfactory alone. In scenarios where outdoor pollution would deteriorate indoor air quality, other treatment devices such as filtration may also be necessary. In kitchen ventilation systems, or for laboratory fume hoods, the design of effective effluent capture can be more important than the bulk amount of ventilation in a space. More generally, the way that an air distribution system causes ventilation to flow into and out of a space impacts the ability for a particular ventilation rate to remove internally generated pollutants. The ability for a system to reduce pollution in a space is described as its “ventilation effectiveness”. However, the overall impacts of ventilation on indoor air quality can depend on more complex factors such as the sources of pollution, and the ways that activities and airflow interact to affect occupant exposure.

An array of factors related to design and operation of ventilation systems are regulated by various codes and standards. Standards dealing with the design and operation of ventilation systems for the purpose of achieving acceptable indoor air quality include: ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and 62.2, the International Residential Code, the International Mechanical Code, and the United Kingdom Building Regulations Part F. Other standards focused on energy conservation also impact the design and operation of ventilation systems, including: ASHRAE Standard 90.1, and the International Energy Conservation Code.

In many instances, ventilation for indoor air quality is simultaneously beneficial for the control of thermal comfort. Increasing the ventilation is essential to enhance the physical health of people. At these times, it can be useful to increase the rate of ventilation beyond the minimum required for indoor air quality. Two examples include air-side economizer cooling and ventilative pre-cooling. In other instances, ventilation for indoor air quality contributes to the need for – and energy use by – mechanical heating and cooling equipment. In hot and humid climates, dehumidification of ventilation air can be a particularly energy intensive process.

Ventilation should be considered for its relationship to “venting” for appliances and combustion equipment such as water heaters, furnaces, boilers, and wood stoves. Most importantly, the design of building ventilation must be careful to avoid the backdraft of combustion products from “naturally vented” appliances into the occupied space. This issue is of greater importance for buildings with more air tight envelopes. To avoid the hazard, many modern combustion appliances utilize “direct venting” which draws combustion air directly from outdoors, instead of from the indoor environment.

importance of interior design

Every individual has a dream to own a house for themselves but don’t really ponder interior design to be all that important.  There are people who want to decorate and make their home colorful and this is possible only with help of interior designers. Only interior designers can make a home-interior remarkable as it is their career that gains creativity, technical know-how, professional and industrial skill on space, building, architecture & human lifestyle.

Interior design not just stands with a look and beauty, added to beauty it also has ability to showcase even a studio apartment as residence which has enough space with the help of proper design and comforting lighting. Whereas, a poor interior design makes a larger house that lack space. Interior designers are experts in creating more spaces, improving the space efficiency, improving the functional usage of space, improving the lighting effect, improving the color effects, improving the textures, patterns, scale, size etc. They are also experts in selecting fittings & equipment. To be precise, it is all about transforming people’s lives and makes their life a better one. Hence interior design is much important than it seem.

Simple fact to hire an interior designer is that they understand the need of the owner and brings their dream home alive. They also can design the house according to vastu (vasthu) or any tradition as per the client’s demand which is an added advantage. Another benefit to have a better interior designed home is that it will fetch higher bids during the sale of the house than any other.

Everyman doesn’t possess a skill to design a home. So it’s wise to hire an interior designer as they are qualified by edification, skill, practice, and examination to enrich utility and quality of interior space. There are worthy reasons to hire an interior designer not only while building a new house but also during a renovation as it ensures that it brings out the exact look and design we wish to have, that makes us a pride owner.

Dream zone understands its importance and hence came up with training an individual to be a designer on interiors. Dream zone school of creative studies provides various courses on interior design that produce many talented interior designers.