The Vessel

The Vessel

Vessel (TKA) is a structure and visitor attraction built as part of the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project in Manhattan, New York City, New York.

Built to plans by the British designer Thomas Heatherwick, the elaborate honeycomb-like structure rises 16 stories and consists of 154 flights of stairs, 2,500 steps, and 80 landings for visitors to climb.

Vessel is the main feature of the 5-acre (2.0 ha) Hudson Yards Public Square. Funded by Hudson Yards developer Related Companies, its final cost is  estimated at $200 million.

The concept of Vessel was unveiled to the public on September 14, 2016. Construction began in April 2017, with the pieces being manufactured in Italy and shipped to the United States. Vessel topped out in  December 2017 with the installation of its highest piece, and it opened on March 15, 2019.

The structure’s name is temporary, as indicated by the TKA abbreviation, which “Temporarily Known As”. Upon opening, Vessel received mixed reviews, with some critics praising its prominent placement within Hudson Yards, and others deriding the structure as extravagant. In its first year, Vessel was also criticized for its restrictive copyright policy regarding photographs taken from the structure, as well as its  lack of accessibility for disabled visitors, both of which were later resolved.

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Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa

Arabic for “Khalifa Tower”; pronounced English: /ˈbɜːrdʒ kəˈliːfə/)The Burj Khalifa (Arabic: known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. With a total height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft) and a roof height (excluding antenna, but including a 244 m spire) of 828 m (2,717 ft), the Burj Khalifa has been the tallest structure and building in the world since its topping out in 2009.

Construction of the Burj Khalifa began in 2004, with the exterior completed five years later in 2009. The primary structure is reinforced concrete. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called Downtown Dubai. It is designed to be the centrepiece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The decision to construct the building is based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based economy, and for Dubai to gain international recognition.

The building was originally named Burj Dubai but was renamed in honour of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan;[5] Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. The building broke numerous height records, including its designation as the tallest building in the world.

Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, whose firm designed the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center. Hyder Consulting was chosen to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project. The design is derived from the Islamic architecture of the region, such as in the Great Mosque of Samarra. The Y-shaped tripartite floor geometry is designed to optimize residential and hotel space. A buttressed central core and wings are used to support the height of the building. Although this design was derived from Tower Palace III, the Burj Khalifa’s central core houses all vertical transportation with the exception of egress stairs within each of the wings. The structure also features a cladding system which is designed to withstand Dubai’s hot summer temperatures. It contains a total of 57 elevators and  8 escalators.

At a certain point in the architectural and engineering process, the original Emaar developers ran into financial issues, and required more money and economic funding. Sheikh Khalifa, the ruler of the United Arab Emirates, granted monetary aid and funding, hence resulting in the changing of the name to “Burj Khalifa”. The concept of profitability derived from building high density developments and malls around the landmark have proven successful. Its surrounding malls, hotels and condominiums in Downtown Dubai have generated the most revenue from the project as a whole, while the Burj Khalifa itself made  little or no profit.

Critical reception to Burj Khalifa has been generally positive, and the building has received many awards. There were complaints concerning migrant workers from South Asia who were the primary building labor force. These centered on low wages and the practice of confiscating passports until duties were complete.

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NewYork Skyscraper History

NewYork Skyscraper History

A new form in skyscraper history has evolved in New York over the past decade: the super-slim, ultraluxury residential tower. These pencil-thin periscopes — all 50 to 90+ stories — use a development and design strategy of slenderness to pile their city-regulated maximum square feet of floor area (FAR) as high in the sky as possible to create luxury apartments defined by spectacular views. The basic, yet complex principles of the economics, engineering, and design of this new type of super-slender towers were detailed in The Skyscraper Museum’s 2013/14 exhibition SKY HIGH & the Logic of Luxury, which is archived in full text and images here.

One of the loveliest buildings of the post-2001-pre-2008 moment of slenderness is SKY HOUSE, a 55story slab rising on a lot just 45 ft. wide on 29th St and running through the block to 30th St, midblock between Fifth and Madison Ave. Having purchased air rights from the landmarked red brick “Little Church Around the Corner,” the developers, architects FXFOWLE, and engineers WSP Cantor Seinuk created a contextual design that emphasized verticality in the close set, brick-faced structural columns.

Their exploration of the design process is described in the video from a presentation for the skyscraper on February 19, 2009. One Madison was largely completed in 2009, but the project hit the market at the beginning of the recession, and the first developers had to declare bankruptcy and sell the building.

Residences range from 805 square-foot studios to a 7,143 square-foot triplex penthouse, and the property features luxurious amenities, including a spa, swimming pool, fitness center, media/screening room, children’s room, and outdoor terrace park. To create a serene and intimate entry, residents enter the building on 22nd Street, a configuration that also allows for a ground floor commercial space to complement the existing retail activity of 23rd Street.

The challenge of designing a tower on the same block as Mies van der Rohe’s modernist masterpiece, the Seagram Building, was given to British architect Sir Norman Foster by developers Aby Rosen and Michael Fuchs of RFR Realty in 2005. The owners of both 100 East 53rd Street and the landmark Seagram Building, Rosen and Fuchs needed approval from the Landmarks Preservation Commission and local community boards to begin construction on the tower, which alludes to its mid-century neighbors with a glass façade, exposed mullions, and a minimal, geometric form, while greatly exceeding it in terms of height and slenderness.

With no more than two apartments per floor, 45 East 22nd Street will feature full floor residences from the 55th floor up. Capping off at a height of 777 feet, the building will be the tallest in the Flatiron District, 135 feet taller than the nearby One Madison. Developed by Bruce Eichner with architects Kohn Pedersen Fox, the tower’s floor plans expand as it rises – swelling from 75 feet wide at its base to 125 feet at the top – allowing for a more floor area for the most expensive units in the buildings highest stories, and culminating in a 7,000 square foot duplex penthouse on the 64th and 65th floors.

The 778 foot, 64 floor Helmut Jahn-designed tower will feature a private observation deck on the top floor reserved exclusively for residents. Located blocks away from the World Trade Center and the Financial District, the slender skyscraper will offer views of New York Harbor and the Statue of Liberty through its curvilinear Aside from the observation terrace, the building features a plethora of luxurious amenities, including a “water club,” full-floor fitness center, entertainment floor, and, on the third floor, fifteen “commercial condominiums,” or private offices, that vary in size from 280 to 830 square feet and are available for purchase by the tower’s residents.

Like other RAMSA towers, 520 Park Avenue evokes the form and texture of New York’s historic pre-war skyscrapers. Amenities include a salon, garden, health club and pool, as well as storage units and wine cellars with prices ranging from $125,000 to $275,000. Condominiums start at $16.2 million for 4,613 square foot, four bedroom, 5.5 bathroom, full-floor units on the 14th through 20th floors. The top floor triplex, available for $130 million with $51,000 in monthly fees and taxes, is 12,400 square feet with an addition 1,250 square feet of outdoor terraces. Manhattan, 111 Murray Street, developed by Fisher Borthers and Witkoff Group with architects Kohn Pedersen Fox, David Rockwell, and MR Architecture & Decór, will make a mark on the skyline with its distinctive flared glass top. Inspired by the form of Murano glass vases, the building’s glass facade expands outwards from the 40th floor to the 58th floor, reaching a height of 792 feet to offer unimpeded views of the Hudson River.

Located two blocks north of One World Trade on the edge of TriBeCa, 111 Murray Street will be built on 31,000 square foot lot, formerly the site of St. John University, that Fisher Brothers and Witkoff purchased for $223 million in 2013.

Designed by the Pritzker Prize-winning Swiss firm Herzog & de Meuron, the tower at 56 Leonard stands apart from other slender towers. Its downtown location at the edge of chic Tribeca, a largely residential neighborhood in an area of converted late-19th century commercial structures, allows it to rise high above surrounding rooftops. Sited just outside the landmark district, and using air rights purchased from the adjacent New York Law School, the tower stretches to nearly 800 feet and 57 stories.

The unusual staggered silhouette, especially of the upper floors, that earned the nickname “the Jenga building” after the game of stacking and balancing wood blocks, also sets the form apart.

Set to be Lower Manhattan’s tallest new residential tower, at 898 feet, the Rafael Vinoly-design 125 Greenwich Street will reach 88 stories, though official figures and renderings have yet to be released. Located in the midst of the Financial District on a 9,000 square foot lot nearby the World Trade Center site, the pencil-thin tower is being developed by SHVO, Bizzi & Partners Development, and New Valley. While earlier images of the project showed a 1,350-foot, all-glass, rectangular extrusion, the latest unofficial renderings depict a series of three glass prisms, separated by landscaped terraces, anchored to a c oncrete spine, and topped off with a rectilinear spire.

Using slenderness as a strategy to lift its residences high in the sky, 30 Park Place, designed by Robert A.M. Stern Associates, pulls as far away as possible from the Woolworth Building — once the world’s tallest — with which it occupies the same block and now overtops. A courtyard separating the two enables 30 Park Place to achieve its height while  with the 185-room The Four Seasons Hotel New York, Downtown on the lower 21 floors. The remainder of the tower, known as the Four Seasons Private Residences New York at 30 Park Place, will comprise 157 luxury condominiums, including full-floor penthouses and setback terraces, with some private residences as large as 6,000 sq. ft.. allowing Woolworth to remain as a free-standing structure.

Designed by Robert A.M. Stern Architects, 220 Central Park South will rise 950 ft. and contain 83 luxury residential units when it is completed in 2017. The residences will be split between a 17-story villa and the adjacent 66-story tower. 220 Central Park South will stand out from the other towers in the 57th street locale, clad in limestone rather than glass and steel.Vornado Realty Trust, the project’s developer, participated in a power struggle with Extell, the developer of the nearby Central Park Tower, in the process of acquiring land and permits for 220 Central Park South.

At 1,004 ft. tall, One57 was the tallest residential tower in New York City when it was completed in 2014, only to be overtaken by 432 Park (which will in turn only keep its title until the Central Park Tower is completed). One57 is the breakthrough luxury project of the developer Gary Barnett of Extell. Targeted at an ultra-luxury market, One57 combines the program of a hotel and its services and amenities in the lower section and 94 condominium units in the tower. One57 is well-known today for its recordbreaking $100 million penthouse sale in January 2015.

Hudson Yards will be the second residential building constructed in the Hudson Yards megaproject  35 and will feature six floors of office space, 200 hotel rooms, and 137 luxury condominiums. At 70 stories and 1,009 ft., the tower, designed by David Childs with SOM, will be one of the tallest residential buildings in the city and the second tallest of the seven Eastern Yard towers. Like 15 Hudson Yards, the skyscraper has seen design changes, beginning as a 900-foot tower with curvilinear setbacks, then transforming to a cylindrical design. The most recent set of renderings show the building as boxier with setbacks and a curvy top.  2009.

Designed by the acclaimed French architect Jean Nouvel, the MoMA Tower, which his studio named Tour Verre, successfully made its way through the review process of the City Planning Commission in the summer of 2009, although with a reduction of height from the original proposal for 1,250 ft., which was cut down to 1,050 ft. The project was halted, however, by the severe recession in financial markets that effectively ended all real estate lending. The project has since been revived, and construction began in 2015.

MoMA will be integrated into the tower: the third, fourth and fifth floors of the new building will serve as 40,000 sq. ft. of additional gallery space for the museum, and residences of the tower will receive benefactor memberships to the museum.

Brooklyn’s first entry into the category of super-slenders, and its future tallest building, is another record-setting project by the same team of developer and architect, JDS and SHoP, responsible for the skinniest of all Manhattan towers, 111 W. 57th Street. At 1,066 feet, the building now known as 9 DeKalb, will dominate the in Downtown Brooklyn skyline. Unlike all the Manhattan towers, though, it will be a rental building that contains 500 rental units, of which 20 percent will be “affordable” due to the project’s 421-a tax exemption status.

With a flat rooftop that squares off at 1,396 ft., 432 Park Avenue is — in the words of its developers   Macklowe Properties and the CIM Group — the loftiest residence “in the Western Hemisphere.” At that height, it will be taller than the 1,368-foot roof of One World Trade Center and the roof of original WTC Tower 1, which from 1971-1973 was the world’s tallest building. However, two taller residential buildings will beat out 432 Park’s title upon their completion in 2018: 111 W 57th and the Central Park  Tower.

The feather-thin tower, projected to rise 1,438 ft., under construction at 111 W 57th St. is the most extreme example in New York to date of a design that uses a development strategy of slenderness.

With a ratio of the width of the base to height of 1:23, it will be by far the most slender building in the world. The stepped-back silhouette of tower, which uses textured terra-cotta ornament to disguise the concrete shear wall structure, shows the inventiveness of both the architects, SHoP, and the engineers, the WSP Group.

Expected to be completed in 2020, Central Park Tower (previously know as the Nordstrom Tower) will be the tallest residential building in the Western Hemisphere. Designed by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture – who, while working for architects Skidmore, Owingss & Merill, designed the world’s current tallest building, the 2,717-foot Burj Khalifa – the Central Park Tower is purported to have the highest roof in the nation at 1,569 ft.. Besides its near-200 residential units, the building will house a hotel and a 363,000 square-foot Nordstrom department store in its base.

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Guangzhou opera house

Guangzhou Opera House

At the heart of Guangzhou‘s cultural sites development, a lasting, state-of-the-art monument to the new millennium overlooking the Pearl River.

Its contoured profile, unique twin boulder design and approach promenade enhances urban function, opens access to the riverside and dock areas and creates a new dialogue with the emerging town.collar/blue collar spatial divisions.

The Guangzhou Opera House is a structure that rises and falls at the foot of Zhujiang Boulevard, confirming Guangzhou as one of Asia’s cultural centres. Bringing together two adjacent sites for the proposed Museum and metropolitan activities, it forms an adjunct to the Haixinsha Tourist Park Island and a dominant riverside focus for visitors. Viewed from the park at the centre of Zhujiang Boulevard, the Opera House creates a visual prelude to the Tourist Park Island beyond. Viewed from the river, the towers of Zhujiang New Town provide a dramatic backdrop to the Opera House and offer a unified vision of the setting’s civic and cultural buildings.

 An approach promenade is cut into the landscape an internal street beginning at the proposed Museum site at the opposite side of the central boulevard and leading to the Opera House. To one side of this promenade, a cafe, bar, restaurant and retail facilities are embedded shell-like into the landforms. Visitors arriving by car or bus are set down at a ‘drop-off’ point on the north side of the site on Huajiu Road, while service vehicles access the Opera House and Theatre Buildings at either end of the same road. VIP access to the Opera House is from the western boundary, facing Huaxia Road.

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One Thousand Museum

One Thousand Museum

One Thousand Museum is a 62- storey residential tower opposite Museum Park in Miami. With views across Biscayne Bay, this popular 30-acre park was redeveloped in 2013 as one of downtown Miami’s primary public spaces and includes the city’s new art and science museums. collar/blue collar spatial divisions.

The tower’s design continues Zaha Hadid Architects’ research into high-rise construction that defines a fluid architectural expression consistent with the engineering for the entire height of a structure. One Thousand Museum’s concrete exoskeleton structures its perimeter in a web of flowing lines that integrates lateral bracing with structural support. Zah Reading from top to bottom as one continuous frame, columns at its base fan out as the tower rises to meet at the corners, forming a rigid tube highly resistant to Miami’s demanding wind loads; its curved supports creating hurricane resistant diagonal bracketing.

“The design expresses a fluidity that is both structural and architectural,” explains Zaha Hadid Architects’ project director Chris Lepine. “The structure gets thicker and thinner required, bringing a continuity between the architecture and engineering.” One Thousand Museum incorporates glass fibre reinforced concrete form-work which remains in place as construction progresses up the tower. This permanent concrete form-work also provides the architectural finish that requires minimal maintenance.

Behind the exoskeleton, the faceted, crystal-like façade contrasts with the solidity of the structure. With its frame at the perimeter, the tower’s interior floor plates are almost column free; the exoskeleton’s curvature creating slightly different plans on each floor. On the lower floors, terraces cantilever from the corners, while on the upper floors, the terraces are incorporated behind the structure. The top floors of the tower feature an aquatic center, lounge and event space. Landscaped gardens, terraces and pools are located above the lobby and residents’ parking.

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Nanjing International Youth Cultural Centre

Nanjing International Youth Cultural Centre

The Nanjing International Youth Cultural Centre harnessed the energy of the 2014Youth Olympic Games to create a project with a lasting legacy that has enhanced and also regenerated its setting – acting as both an anchor and a catalyst for future investment in Nanjing’s  Hexi New Town.

Conventional white collar/blue collar spatial divisions Comprised of two hotel towers that include the new Jumeirah Nanjing a cultural centre with conference facilities, an urban plaza, offices and mixed-use areas, the development initially provided accommodation the 2014 Youth Olympic Games. Now in its legacy stage, the centre has fostered investment in Hexi New Town on multiple levels; integrating additional infrastructure with new functions that include the hotels and a venue for Jiangsu Province’s annual conferences. Some of these functions, such as the footbridge connecting the city to the rural landscapes of Jiangxinzhou Island in the Yangtze River, are expressed. Others, such as burying the existing expressway below ground to create a new riverside park, are now hidden.

The four elements of the cultural centre (conference hall, auditorium, shops and guest zones) are independent volumes surrounding the central courtyard. These four elements merge into a singular whole a higher levels, enabling pedestrians to walk through an open landscap at ground level. The conference hall seats 2,100 and is equipped with multi-purpose proscenium stage suitable for conferences, cultural and theatrical events. The auditorium seats 500 and is optimized for acoustic performances. The cultural centre’s design is a three dimensional calligraphic composition that resonates with Nanjing’s 1,600-year-old tradition of Yunjin – the name given to the intricate brocade threading used by local craftsmen to weave the region’s acclaimed gold and silver fabric Like Yunjin thread, a continuous line interweaves throughout the cultural centre connecting it with its earthquake-resistant towers and beyond to the new central business district, riverside park and Jiangxinzhou Island.

The tapering profiles of the towers, at 255m and 315m Zaha Hadid Architects’ tallest completed towers to date, extend the viewer’s sens of perspective. The towers’ trapezoidal floor plans maximise their rive facing frontages and double-decked elevators increase the efficiency their core area planning by fifty per cent. The cross-sectional geometi of the towers ensures an average net to gross ratio of over 70 per cerHigh standards in the quality and performance of the centre’s interior environments are achieved by bringing natural light into the deep plan spaces of the conference centre and minimising the need to augment daylight by avoiding tinted glass. Office spaces combine mechanical and natural ventilation which, along with high level gardens, enhance the user experience.

Efficient cooling and heating strategies, optimal passive design orientation, flexible planning and selfcleaning facades are used to maximise the project’s design life. Driven by the milestone of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games, for which the development provided venues and competitors’ accommodation, the centre’s construction operations set records and demonstrated the project team’s expertise. Mainland China’s first completely top-down/bottom-up tower construction, combining above and below ground construction with extensive design work proceeding in parallel, the project’s construction programme was reduced by a full year. The entire centre was completed 34 months after design began with all works on site lasting only 18 months. High standards in the quality and performance of the centre’s interior environments are achieved by bringing natural light into the deep plan spaces of the conference centre and minimising the need to augment daylight by avoiding tinted glass.

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Morpheus Hotel

Morpheus Hotel

Asia’s most popular entertainment destination, Macau welcomed more than 32 million tourists in 2017, with visitor numbers increasing every year. Located in Cotai, Macau, City of Dreams is a leading integrated resort including casino, two theatres, shopping district, 20 restaurants and four hotels. Informed by the fluid forms within China’s rich traditions of jade carving, the Morpheus’ design combines dramatic public spaces and generous guest rooms with innovative engineering and formal cohesion Conceived as a vertical extrusion of its rectangular footprint, a series of voids is carved through its centre to create an urban window connecting the hotel’s interior communal spaces with the city and generating the sculptural forms that define the hotels public spaces.

Linked at ground level with the surrounding three-storey podium of the City of Dreams resort, the Morpheus houses 770 guest rooms, suites and sky villas, and includes civic spaces, meeting and event facilities, gaming rooms, lobby atrium, restaurants, spa and rooftop pool, as woll as extensive back-of-house areas and ancillary facilities. The design resalves the hotel’s many complex programmes within a single cohesive envelope. Zaha Hadid Architects (ZHA) was commissioned to build the hotel in 2012. At that time, foundations were already in place of a condominium tower that did not progress. ZHA designed the Morpheus as a simple extrusion of the existing abandoned foundafions; using this rectangular footprint to define a 40- storey building of two internal vertical circulation cores connected at podium and roof levels where the many guest amenities were required.

This extrusion generated a monolithic block making best use its development envelope that is restricted to a 160m height by local planning codes. This block was then ‘carved’ with voids The underlying diagram of the hotels design is a pair of towers connected at ground and roof levels. The central atrium in-between these towers runs the height of the hotel and is traversed by extemal voids that connect the north and south facades. These voids create the urban window that inks the hotel’s interior communal spaces with the city. Three horizontal vortices generate the voids through the building and define the hotel’s dramatic internal public spaces; creating unique comer suites with spectacular views of both the atrium and the city. This arrangement maximises the number of hotel rooms with external views and guarantees an equal room distribution on either side of the bulding. Inbetween the free-form voids that traverse the atrium, a series of bridges create unique spaces for the hotel’s restaurants, bars and guest lounges by renowned chefs including Alain Ducasse and Pierre Hermé.

The atrium’s twelve glass elevators provide guests with remarkable views of the hotel’s interior and exterior as they travel between the voids of the building As one of the world’s leading hotels, the Morpheus’ interior spaces necessitated a high degree of adaptability to accommodate the many varying requirements of its guest amenities. The building’s exoskeleton opimizes the interiors by creating spaces that are unintemrupted by supporting walls or columns. The world’s first free-form high-rise exoskeleton, its rich pattern of structural members at lower levels progresses upwards to a less dense grid of lighter members at its summit. Morpheus draws on a ZHA’s 40 years of research into the integration of interior and exterior, civic and private, solid and void, Cartesian and Einsteinian. Space is woven within structure to tie disparate programmes together and constantly make connections.

Viviana Muscettola, ZHAS project director explains, “Morpheus combines its optimal arrangement with structural integrity and soulptural form. The design is intriguing as it makes no reference to traditional architectural typologies “Macau’s buildings have previously referenced architecture styles from around the world. Morpheus has evolved from its unique environment and site condtions as a new architecture expressly of this city. “The expertise of all members of the Morpheus team has created new possibilities for architecture,” continued Muscettola. “The comprehensive parametric model combined al of the hotel’s aestheic, structural and fabrication requirements and will radically change how our built environment is planned and constructed.” Lawrence Ho, chaiman and CEO of Melco Resorts said, From the very beginning, we shared ZHA’s vision and determination to push boundaries. Morpheus offers a joumey of the imagination. From the curved exterior to the dramatic interior spaces, it pleases the eye and excites the senses: a contemporary masterpiece to be enjoyed by many generations to come.”

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leeza Soho

leeza Soho

Located on Lize Road in southwest Beijing, Leeza SOHO tower anchors the new Fengtai business district A growing financial and transport hub between the city centre and the recently opened Beijing Daxing International Airport to the south. The new business district is integral to Beijing’s multi- modal urban plan to accommodate growth without impacting existing infrastructure networks in the centre of the city. This 45-storey 172,800m2 tower responds to demand from small and medium-sized businesses in Beijing for flexible and efficient Grade A office space conventional white collar/blue collar spatial divisions.

Adjacent to the business district’s rail station at the intersection of five new lines currently under construction on Beijing’s Subway network, Leeza SOHO’s site is diagonally dissected by an underground subway service tunnel. Straddling this tunnel, the tower’s design divides its volume into two halves enclosed by a single facade shell.

The emerging space between these two halves extends the full height of the tower, creating the world’s tallest atrium at 194.15m which rotates through the building as the tower rises to realign the upper floors with Lize road to the north. rotation of the atrium intertwines Leeza SOHO’s two halves in a dynamic ‘pas de deux’ with connecting skybridges on levels 13, 24, 35 and 45; its glazed facade giving panoramic views across the city.

Leeza SOHO’s atrium acts as a public square for the new business district, linking all spaces within the tower and providing varying views due to its twisting, sculptural form; creating a fantastic new civic space HO for Beijing that is directly connected to the city’s transport network. The atrium brings natural light deep within the building, acting as a thermal chimney with an integrated ventilation system that maintains positive pressure at low level to limit air ingress and provides an effective clean air filtration process within the tower’s internal environment.

Leeza SOHO’s double-insulated, unitised glass curtain wall system steps the glazing units on each floor at an angle, providing narrow ventilating registers to draw outside air through operable cavities required; creating extremely efficient environmental control for each floor.required; creating extremely efficient environmental control for each floor. The two halves of the tower shade the atrium’s public spaces, while the double-insulated low-e glazing maintains a comfortable indoor environment in Beijing’s extreme weather conditions.

With a u-value of 2.0 W/m?K, the glazing has a shading coefficient of 0.4. The tower’s overall external envelope u-value is 0.55 W/m²K. At the forefront of 3D Building Information Modelling (BIM) in design, construction management and building operations, Zaha Hadid Architects and SOHO China have implemented proven technologies to reduce the energy consumption and emissions at each of their four collaborations, totalling 15 million square feet (1.4 million sq. m) of mixed-use urban space in Beijing and Shanghai. Designed to achieve LEED Gold certification by the US Green Building Council, Leeza SOHO’s advanced 3D BIM energy management system monitors real-time environmental control and energy efficiency.

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Galaxy soho

Galaxy soho

Galaxy soho Four continuous, flowing volumes coalesce to create an internal world of continuous open spaces within Galaxy Soho – a new office, retail  entertainment complex devoid of corners or abrupt transitions – a  re-inventing of the classical Chinese courtyard which generates  an immersive, enveloping experience at the heart of Beijing.the Sleuk Rith Institute was founded by Chhang as a focus for reflection, healing and reconciliation as well as an enlightening educational and research facility dedicated to commemorating the lives of the past by building a better future. creates a new dialogue with the emerging town.collar/blue collar spatial divisions.

Galaxy Soho constitutes a new office, retail and entertainment complex for the heart of this great Chinese city – matching its grand scale. The complex comprises four continuous flowing volumes, set apart yet fused or linked by a sequence of stretched bridges. Each volume adapts outwards, generating a panoramic architecture devoid of corners or abrupt transitions. Galaxy Soho reinvents the great interior courts of Chinese antiquity to create an internal world of continuous open spaces.

Here, architecture no longer incorporates rigid blocks, but instead comprises volumes which coalesce to achieve continuous mutual adaptation and fluid movement between buildings. Shifting plateaus impact upon each other to generate a deep sense of immersion and envelopment, allowing visitors to discover intimate spaces as they move deeper in the building. The structure’s three lower levels contain retail and entertainment facilities, those above provide works spaces for innovative businesses of many kinds, while top levels are dedicated to bars, restaurants and cafes – many with views along the city’s great avenues.

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Beijing Daxing International Airport

Beijing Daxing International Airport

Beijing Daxing International Airport (BDIA) is a new airport in the Daxing district 46km south of the city centre. Developed to alleviate congestion at the capital’s existing airport, BDIA will be a major transport hub for the region with the world’s fastest growing demand for international travel and is fully integrated within the country’s expanding transport network.

BDIA’s 700,000m2 passenger terminal includes an 80,000m? ground transportation centre offering direct connections to Beijing, the national high-speed rail network and local train services, providing a catalyst for economic development in Tianjin and Hebei Province. Recently assigned the airport code PKX by the International Air Transport Association, Beijing Daxing sets a new standard in air transport services, serving the region’s growing population within a compact and efficient passenger terminal that is adaptable for future growth.

Echoing principles within traditional Chinese architecture that organize interconnected spaces around ua central courtyard, the terminal’s design guides all passengers seamlessly through the relevant departure, arrival or transfer zones towards the grand courtyard at its centre – a multi-layered meeting space at the heart of the terminal. Eight flowing forms within the terminal’s vaulted roof reach to the ground to support the structure and bring natural light within, directing all passengers towards the central courtyard. Natural light also enters the terminal via a network of linear skylights that provide an intuitive system of navigation throughout the building, guiding passengers to and from their departure gates. Structural spans of up to 100m provide the terminal’s generous public spaces and allow the highest degree of flexibility for any future reconfiguration.

The compact radial configuration of the terminal allows a maximum number of aircraft to be parked directly at the terminal with minimum distances from the centre of the building, providing exceptional convenience for passengers and flexibility in operations. 79 gates with airbridges connect directly to the terminal while BDIA’s facilities can quickly process the passengers of six full A380 aircraft simultaneously. Five aircraft piers radiate directly from the terminal’s main central court where all passenger services and amenities are located, enabling passengers to walk the comparatively short distances through the airport without the need for automated shuttle trains.

As a result, the terminal’s compact design minimises distances between check-in and gate, as well as connections between gates for transferring passengers. This radial configuration ensures the farthest boarding gate can be accessed in a walking time of less than 8 minutes. Photovoltaic power generation is installed throughout the airport to provide a minimum capacity of at least 10MW. BDIA’s centralised heating with waste heat recovery supported by a composite ground- source heat pump system incorporating a concentrated  energy supply area of nearly 2.5 million m.

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